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Coupling Agents

Coupling agents are widely used for amide and ester formation, especially for solid-phase peptide synthesis, as they facilitate bond formation without becoming part of the linkage. In synthetic organic chemistry, compounds containing the carbodiimide functionality act as dehydration agents and are often used to activate carboxylic acids towards amide or ester formation. Additives, such as N-hydroxybenzotriazole or N-hydroxysuccinimide, are often added to increase yields and decrease side reactions.

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Code Cas No Product Description
FA15661 156311-85-2

AOP

HOAt-derived phosphonium salt coupling reagent for peptide synthesis
FB15670 105379-24-6

O-(Benzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-bis(tetramethylene)uronium hexafluorophosphate

HOAt-derived aminium salt coupling reagent for solid phase synthesis
FB01762 56602-33-6

BOP

Phosphonium-based reagent for peptide synthesis; esters synthesis
FB15576 68641-49-6

BOP-Cl

A carboxyl activator in peptide coupling reactions
FB15669 132705-51-2

Bromotripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate

Effective for coupling of N-methyl amino acids with low enantiomerization 
FB15685 164298-25-3

BTFFH

Peptide coupling reagent; does not form volatile or toxic byproducts
FB45526 1433-27-8

1-(tert-Butyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide

Coupling agent for guanylation of amines; used for ketene cyclo-addition
FC15660 41864-22-6

N,N'-Carbonyl-di-(1,2,4-triazole)

Used in peptide synthesis; phosgene replacement in carbamate and urea synthesis
FC02706 530-62-1

N,N'-Carbonyl diimidazole

Coupling agent; also used to make lead sequestering agents and β-enamino acids
FC160903 181517-09-9

1,1'-Carbonyldiimidazole-13C

Isotopic labelled coupling reagent for mechanistic studies
FC19968 37091-73-9

2-Chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride

Used in synthesis of glycosyl oxazolines and azides; peptide linked to sugars
FC07101 3140-73-6

2-Chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine

A stable, highly reactive, peptide coupling agent
FC15427 1075198-30-9

4-{{[(1-Cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylidene)amino]oxayl] (dimethylamino)methylene]-hexafluorophosphate

A safe coupling agent in phosphonamidation; used in peptides synthesis
FC55888 2491-17-0

N-Cyclohexyl-N'-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide methyl-p-toluenesulfonate

Water-soluble coupling reagent for peptide synthesis used without base catalysis
FD05508 538-75-0

1,3-Dicyclohexyl carbodiimide

Used in peptide coupling, esterification and invert 2nd alcohol stereochemistry
FD02073 693-13-0

1,3-Diisopropylcarbodiimide

Coupling agent for peptides, nucleic acids and asymmetric bis alkyl carbonates
FD02693 1892-57-5

1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide

Used in combination with N-hydroxysuccinimide in amide coupling reaction
FD05800 25952-53-8

1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide HCl

Water soluble reagent; carboxyl activating agent; used in immunoconjugates
FD03847 22572-40-3

1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide methiodide

Water soluble crosslinking agent
FD15692 74124-79-1

N,N'-Disuccinimidyl carbonate

Used for preparation of active carbonates; coupling of ligands to peptides
FE15659 16859-20-4

2-Ethyl-7-hydroxy-1,2-benzisoxazole tetrafluoroborate

Reagent for formation of activated esters in peptide synthesis
FH09243 148893-10-1

HATU

Coupling agent with fast reaction rate; catalyses selective acylation
FH07095 94790-37-1

HBTU

High yielding for peptide synthesis; suitable in both solid and solution phase
FH15560 330645-87-9

HCTU

Stable coupling agent for hindered substrates; faster reaction rate than HBTU
FH15565 333717-40-1

HOTU

Aminium salt coupling reagent for peptide synthesis
FH15693 364047-51-8

HPTU

Iminium -type coupling agent for peptide synthesis
FP45803 68957-94-8

Propylphosphonic acid anhydride - 50% in 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran

Stable in air, selective, nonsensitizing, giving minimal racemization products
FP61737 68957-94-8

Propylphosphonic acid anhydride - 50% in dichloromethane

Stable in air, selective, nonsensitizing, giving minimal racemization products
FP11273 68957-94-8

Propylphosphonic acid anhydride - 50% in Ethyl acetate

Stable in air, selective, nonsensitizing, giving minimal racemization products
FP44406 68957-94-8

Propylphosphonic acid anhydride - 50% in THF

Stable in air, selective, nonsensitizing, giving minimal racemization products
FP61736 68957-94-8

Propylphosphonic acid anhydride - 50% in toluene

Stable in air, selective, nonsensitizing, giving minimal racemization products
FP29480 68957-94-8

Propylphosphonic acid anhydride - 50% solution in DMF

Stable in air, selective, nonsensitizing, giving minimal racemization products
FP15550 128625-52-5

PyBOP

Phosphonium-based reagent for peptide synthesis; heteroaryl ether synthesis
FP35331 153433-21-7

PyOxim

Soluble, nonsensitizing and stable reagent used for cyclic peptides synthesis
FT15575 873798-09-5

TATU

Uronium based coupling agent; effective for carboxylic acid esters synthesis
FT07096 125700-67-6

TBTU

Versatile agent in solid-phase peptide synthesis with low degree of racemisation
FT35332 164298-23-1

TFFH

Coupling agent for peptide synthesis; non-hygroscopic air stable salt
FT15567 136849-72-4

TOTU

Uronium-based coupling reagent for peptide synthesis for solution phase 
FT03674 125700-71-2

TPTU

Peptide coupling agent with low degree racemization
FT15580 105832-38-0

TSTU

Uronium based coupling reagent for carboxamides and peptide synthesis
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